Brand new cars, -97% sales in Gallura and Sassari

In April, only 19 cars were purchased. The ranking of brands

 

One of the most affected economic sector by the Covid-19 epidemic is the automotive sector (car and motorcycle production, tyre production, dealerships).

According to the sceneries outlined by Cerved, leader in Italy in the balance analysis, companies in the sector could lose, between 2020 and 2021, from 32 to 86 billion in turnover. Just in Sardinia, the losses could be 164 million in the base case and 433 million in the worst case.

In these days the first numbers have arrived. In April 2020, in Italy there was a 97.5% drop in sales of brand new cars compared to the same month of 2019, as certified by the data released by the Ministry of Transport. The cars sold were just over 4 thousand compared to over 174 thousand a year earlier.

The same negative percentage was recorded in the province of Sassari, within which there are also data from Gallura. Last April, only 19 new cars were sold in this  province, compared to 762 in April 2019, 969 in April 2018 and 736 in April 2017.

Specifically, six Fiat brand cars were sold, two each for Citroën, Lancia, Renault and Opel, one each for Dacia, Kia, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Tesla. In 2019 149 models of Renault, 87 of Fiat, 82 of Volkswagen, 55 of Ford, 53 of Citroën, 48 of Dacia were sold in the province of Sassari. In 2018 360 models of Renault, 91 of Fiat, 89 of Volkswagen, 71 of Ford and 46 of Citroën were sold.

Entrepreneurs in North Sardinia report that at the end of the year half the dealerships could be closed, as explained by Luca Confalonieri, President of the Metalmeccanici-Auto Section of Confindustria Centro Nord Sardegna (provinces of Sassari and Nuoro). The sector employs 300 direct and 400 indirect employees and the companies have a total turnover of 200 million euros.


 

Olbia: the population increases even with the “lockdown” situation.

The city is always attractive: + 104 residents in the first 5 months of 2020

 

 

Olbia keeps on being attractive. The latest data published by Istat and the Municipality confirm both the demographic growth of the city, which reached 61,527 inhabitants in May and the excellent migration balance. The difference between those who take up residence in Olbia and those who leave it has in fact been positive for decades and, although with some slowdowns after the financial crisis of 2008, the trend has remained the same over the last five years. On the contrary, starting from 2019 the arrival of immigrants - both Italian, from other municipalities in Sardinia and from other regions, and foreigners - has become consistent again, as can be seen in the table.

In 2016 there were 1461 immigrants and 1070 emigrants: a positive balance of 391. In 2017, 1370 immigrants and 1159 emigrants: + 211. In 2018, 1415 immigrants and 1061 emigrants: + 354. In 2019, 1671 immigrants and 1153 emigrants: +518. In the first five months of 2020 - until 20 May - there were 453 immigrants and 349 emigrants: a positive balance of 104. This is a significant increase given the two-month lockdown imposed by the Government to combat the Covid 19 epidemic. In April, in fact, the Municipality of Olbia, as stated in the statistical update on its website, did not register any immigrants.

Olbia - with its good life quality and economy powered by the Cipnes productive district, the airport, the port and the services and tourism sector - still offers excellent job opportunities to many Italian and foreign citizens, thus confirming itself as one of the most dynamic cities not only in Sardinia but in the whole of Italy. It is the third city, after Milan and Parma, to have grown the most in the difficult decade 2009-2019.

The latest statistical updates provide other interesting information about Olbia. The foreigners residing in Olbia at December 31, 2019 were 6,519, equal to 10.6% of the total population. The percentage growth of foreigners was 2.9% compared to 1% of the total population.

The most populous district of Olbia is the Hospital (4,660 residents), followed by Baratta (3822 residents) and San Nicola (3193 residents). In the industrial area of Cipnes there are 205 residents.


 

The Cipnes Gallura, new services for the digital revolution

Requested the opinion on the use of internet to the productive district companies

 

The Cipnes Gallura wants to know what are the needs of companies in the Olbia production district concerning the use of internet and connectivity. The aim is to provide an appropriate service to the current digital revolution to all the 537 companies located in its 760 hectares.

In these days a survey has been sent to the companies, in a simple language and that can be completed in a few minutes, in which they are asked to answer on the status of the actual Internet access, the number of employees using the Internet connection, the use of tools such as videoconferencing, smartworking, teaching distance courses, audio/video transmissions.

Companies are asked to report any critical issues and to express their opinion on the use of wireless systems (without cables); finally, they will have to indicate the application fields that could improve the competitiveness of their economic activity.

Entrepreneurs' replies - which should be sent by e-mail to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - are essential to help Cipnes to provide even better services to all the companies established.


 

Works has started in the streets of Cipnes production area. They’ll last 30 days.

The work area is financed by Sardinian Region

Today work began for the road network in the Cipnes Gallura Olbia production area. The works - which will be carried out in 30 days - involve the scarification and resurfacing of the road pavement on the following streets (as can be seen on the map): Angola street (intervention area 1), Mincio street north section (1), Madagascar street and crossways (intervention area 2), Italy avenue and its roundabouts (3), Europa roundabout and connecting ramps (intervention area 4). The road signage will also be redone, which is now poorly visible.

                                   

The operations were financed by the Sardinia Region by Resolution No. 11/09 of March 11, 2020 for a tender-based amount of 706,551.86 (of which 689,592.79 for works subject to a discount and 16,959.79 for safety burdens not subject to auction).

The contract was awarded on 6 May 2020 to the company Vitali spa, which made a 37.6 per cent discount corresponding to the amount of € 447,264.97. Pending further regional funding for the maintenance and safety of the entire road network of the agglomeration , the Cipnes Gallura had been asking for about two years to be able to use cost savings aimed precisely at extraordinary maintenance and safety of the road system, which has been severely degraded due to the heavy traffic of heavy vehicles entering and leaving the ports, causing inconvenience and accidents. The Regional Department of Public Works has positively evaluated the request of Cipnes, which - once obtained the green light - has proceeded to the contract of the urgent works.

           


 

In Gallura 27% less recruitment than in the whole of Sardinia

Aspal and Chamber of Commerce report on the Coronavirus. Olbia reaches 110 thousand inhabitants in summer

 

The strategic importance of Olbia and Gallura for the economy and employment in Sardinia emerges from two separate studies recently published - one by Aspal, the other by the Chamber of Commerce of Sassari - on the effects produced on the island by the Coronavirus.

The Sardinia Aspal, the agency for active labour policies, analysed the decline in recruitment between 2020 and 2019 in the period between 19 February and 5 May. In 2019 there were 70,000 (70,671 to be precise) hires - fixed-term, permanent, apprenticeship, parasubordinate, intermittent. In the same period of 2020 they were almost 42 thousand less.

The most affected sector was tourism and the most penalized area was the north-east of Sardinia. Gallura in 2019 had insured 21% of all recruitment in Sardinia. In particular, the Olbia area - including the municipalities of Santa Teresa, La Maddalena, Palau, Arzachena, Golfo Aranci, Loiri Porto San Paolo, San Teodoro, Budoni - had guaranteed 19.2% of recruitment between 19 February and 5 May. The Tempio zone, 1.9%. In absolute terms, the contracts signed in Olbia had been 13,601.

In second place, on the Island, there was Cagliari with 11,093 contracts. In the same period of 2020, instead, there were almost 42,000 fewer employment contracts all over Sardinia (41,823, to be exact) and of these 10,417 in the Olbia area and the other coastal municipalities of Gallura and 788 in the Tempio district. In Gallura there is a 26.7% drop in contracts in the whole of Sardinia.  Only in the hotel and restaurant sector, 18,000 fewer contracts were signed than in the rest of Sardinia. The Coronavirus impact, therefore, has particularly damaged the Gallura economy but, indirectly, the whole Region: many workers who find a job in the north-east of Sardinia come from all over the island.

The important role of Olbia and Gallura for the Sardinian economy is also highlighted in a report by the Chamber of Commerce of Sassari that analyzes the economic losses caused by the Coronavirus, with the division between suspended and active companies. The study reports - based on Istat data - that the local units suspended in Olbia are 3082 (equal to 54% of the total) and those active 2603 (46%). There are 7541 employees in suspended activities (equal to 425) and 10,427 in active activities (equal to 58%).

A significant figure is the population growth determined by the tourists arrival. The Chamber of Commerce explains that Olbia, which has 60,731 residents, rose to almost 100 thousand in June, over 108 thousand in July, almost 110 thousand in August and almost 100 thousand in September. The Coronavirus effects mainly affect tourism and the Chamber of Commerce quantifies how much these affect the service sector, estimating the decline in turnover from March (month considered for 2/3).

For the companies of Olbia, between March and April the decrease was 61,4 million in turnover (-3,4%); between March and May 104,7 million (-5,95), between March and June 153,1 million (-8,6%), between March and July 205,7 million (-11,5%). There was also a fall in turnover in the industrial sector, according to the analysis of the Chamber of Commerce: -26,3 million (-5,4%) between March and April, -44,8 million (-9,3%) between March and May, -65,5 million (-13,6%) between March and June and 88 million (-18,2%) between March and July. The data on annual production is interesting. The Chamber of Commerce indicates a turnover for services of 1 billion 800 million for Olbia and 480 million for Arzachena and for industry of 482 million for Olbia and 87 million for Arzachena.


Regional incentives for recruitments from 2019 to 2022

A bonus to companies for the employment of young people, women and the unemployed

 

A regional contribution to Sardinian companies hiring under 35, unemployed and women over 35, with incentives from 1200 euro to 16,000 euro and one-year coverage. This is the employment support measure called "T.V.B. Occupational Bonus" that will finance hirings from 1 October 2019 until 2022.

The Cipnes Gallura territorial development agency is available to provide information and support on an intervention aimed at all enterprises holding VAT numbers (with the exception of fishing and aquaculture, primary production of agricultural products). You can write to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or call 0789.597125.

The incentive consists of a financial contribution granted by the Sardinia Region, whose intensity and duration varies according to the type of contract activated by the company (12 months or indefinite time), the gross monthly salary, and the type of recipient recruited (with particular reference to disadvantaged, very disadvantaged or disabled people).

Companies that have recruited from 1 October 2019 until 21 January 2022 will be eligible for the contribution. Those who have hired from 1 October 2019 until 31 January 2020 must submit their application by 31 July 2020.

There are two possibilities for recruitment after 1 February 2020. First, if the final application deadline (i.e. the last day of the month following the date of recruitment) falls on a date before 31 July 2020, this deadline is extended to 31 July 2020. The second: where the final deadline for the submission of applications falls later than 31 July 2020, applications must be submitted "by the last day of the month following the date of recruitment".

The incentive may vary from a minimum of 1,200 euros to a maximum of 16,000 euros depending on the salary bracket and the type of recruitment for a specific/undefined period.If, on the other hand, the recipient of the employment is a disabled person, the amount of the incentive varies from a minimum of €1,800 to a maximum of €24,000, also in this case calculated on the basis of the salary bracket and the type of contract determined/undetermined.The application procedure will be managed through the Employment Information System (SIL) on the specific portal www.sardegnalavoro.it


 

Cipnes at work in its 10 hectares of public green space

The strategic objective is the reconversion in an ecologically equipped productive area

 

The Cipnes Gallura workmen are busy maintaining the 10 hectares of green spaces in the industrial area of Olbia. The Cipnes performs two important functions. On one hand, it manages the equipped green areas and those for collective use. On the other side instead, it carries out the design and the realization of the new parks and standard green areas of its competence.

Environmental sustainability is one of Cipnes' missions: health, safety and the environment have assumed a central role in the development policies of the production and industrial areas and the consortium is a convinced and active interpreter of this new course. In this perspective, the conversion of its industrial area into an Ecologically Equipped Production Area (APEA) is a strategic priority for Cipnes. The objective is to promote and support the ecologically sustainable settlement of new production activities in Gallura. Our Consortium ensures a greater and permanent attention to all environmental matrices, implements the eco-efficiency and environmental sustainability principles and guarantees a governance based on an integrated management of environmental, health and safety issues of the entire Cipnes production area.

In summary, the Cipnes aims are the following: to pursue environmental  greater performance than the sum of the benefits that can be obtained from the optimization of the production processes of each established company; to generate socio-economic and competitive benefits for the companies operating within the consortium areas; to create an alliance between the established companies by involving them in a virtuous mechanism in being competitive by providing quality to the entire production chain established; to launch a marketing and attractiveness action on which to base the improvement of the image and reputation of the area thanks to the APEA qualification; to create the conditions to generate cost savings for the established companies, to improve the protection of the environment, health and safety of workers, therefore, to promote attractiveness and attractiveness towards new companies that will be established in the CIPNES APEA area; to design and build infrastructures for the energy production and distribution from renewable sources in the consortium industrial area such as cycle paths with photovoltaic roofing, biomethane from urban and organic waste recovery, thermodynamic solar energy.

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The Cipnes Agency at work for enterprises

"We support you on regional loans for tourism."

 

 The Cipnes Gallura Territorial Development Agency is working to help companies that intend to use both national and regional funding and loans to counteract the Coronavirus impact.

Conceived as an activity to support the creation, innovation, aggregation and internationalisation of companies, the Agency is analyzing the regional law number 8 of March 9 with which are granted chirografary loans to Sardinian activities in the tourism sector. Its staff is available to all entrepreneurs to provide assistance and information (call 0789.597125 or send an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).

The loans, for which the Region of Sardinia has already published the notice, are addressed to micro enterprises (less than 10 employees and less than 2 million turnover) and small enterprises (less than 50 employees and 10 million turnover) in tourism (* the relevant Ateco codes for financial activities are at the bottom of the article).

The public aid to support the Sardinian tourism economy is aimed at ensuring the availability of financial liquidity and preserving the companies' workforce.

The loan consists of interest-free financing, with a repayment period spread over 72 months, including 24 months of pre-amortisation. No real and/or personal guarantees are provided.

The eligible amount varies from a minimum of 30 thousand euros to a maximum of 70 thousand euros, calculated on the basis of the presumed cost of employees for 2020 (which must be at least equal to or higher than the same average cost in the previous three years) and depending on the aid scheme chosen by the company in accordance with EU Regulations 1407/2013 and 651/2014 of the Commission.

Funding from the Region of Sardinia is paid out over the counter: applications will be examined in the chronological order in which they are submitted. Applications may be submitted from 9 a.m. on 29 April until 31 July 2020.

The procedure for uploading and submitting applications will be managed through the Employment Information System (SIL) on the portal www.sardegnalavoro.it. Companies will be able to register or access directly, if they are already registered, using the access credentials. The request to be completed is called " Funding Application for Access and Liquidity Support”.

 

* Atheco codes list eligible for funding

47.78.32 Retail sale of handicrafts

49.32.20 Transportation by car rental with driver

50.10.00 Maritime and coastal passenger transport "Local traffic".

55.10.00 Hotels

55.20.10 Holiday villages

55.20.20 Youth Hostels

55.20.51 Short-stay room rentals, holiday homes and apartments, bed and breakfast

55.20.52 Accommodation activities related to agricultural holdings

55.30.00 Camping areas and equipped areas for campers and caravans

56.10.11 Refreshment and dispensing

56.10.12 Catering activities related to agricultural holdings

56.10.30 Ice cream parlours and pastry shops

56.10.41 Ice cream and pastry shops and itinerant bakeries

56.10.42 Street food

56.30.00 Bars and other similar establishments without cooking

77.11.00 Renting of passenger cars and light motor vehicles

77.21.01 Bicycle rental

77.21.02 Unmanned chartering of carry-over craft (including pedal boats)

77.21.09 Hire of other sports and recreational equipment

77.34.00 Hire of maritime and river transport equipment

79.11.00 Travel agency activities

79.90.19 Other reservation services and other tourist assistance not provided by travel agencies

79.90.20 Activities of guides and tour leaders

91.02.00 Museum activities

91.03.00 Management of historical sites and monuments and similar attractions

93.21.00 Amusement parks and theme parks

93.29.20 Management of sea, lake and river bathing establishments

49.39.09 Other land transport of Inca passengers


 

Gallura, the per capita income is 15 thousand euros.

Data from the Ministry of Economy on 2018. Good for entrepreneurs

 

The Ministry of Economy published, days ago, the statistics on tax returns for 2018, the latest available and therefore previous to the crisis caused by the Coronavirus. It is thus possible to photograph an important part of the Gallura area economy, one of the most dynamic regions of Sardinia with its 19 thousand active companies, 537 of which in the Cipnes Gallura industrial area.

The total number of Irpef taxpayers in Gallura (here intended as the total of the 26 municipalities of the former Province) is 109 thousand (108,693 to be precise) and the average per capita income is 15 thousand euros (15,174 to be exact).

The largest number of taxpayers is in Olbia (39,823), Arzachena (9428), Tempio (9366) and La Maddalena (7745). The highest per capita income is in Golfo Aranci, with 18,754 euros; in second place is La Maddalena, with 18,375 euros; in the third Olbia, with 17,715 euros; in the fourth Arzachena, with 17,618 euros; in the fifth San Teodoro, with 17,071 euros.

Income by typology.The incomes of Gallura's employees are 61,025, those from construction are 41,631, those from retirement are 31,940, those from participation (in partnerships) are 6134, those of entrepreneurs ( individual enterprises) are 5427, those of the self-employed are 1770.

The Ministry of Economy, through the Department of Finance, makes a due clarification: "It is appropriate to reiterate that "entrepreneurs" in the Irpef declarations refers to the owners  of sole proprietorships, therefore excluding those who exercise economic activity in a corporate form; moreover, the definition of entrepreneur cannot be taken as a synonym of "employer" since the majority of sole proprietorships do not have employees". Entrepreneurs' income, with employees, will be provided in June.

The average income for each category. Now let's analyze the incomes of the Gallura people by category. The 1770 self-employed Gallura's incomes amount to 67,895,312 euros: the average revenue is 38,358. The incomes of entrepreneurs (owners of sole proprietorships) amount to 100,347,761 euros: the average income of 5427 taxpayers is 18,490 (the taxpayers were 4439 in 2017). The income from employment amounts to 1 billion euros in Gallura: the average income of 61,025 taxpayers is 16,461 euros. The income of entrepreneurs with participation in partnerships amounts to 81,625,207: the average income of 6134 taxpayers is 13,307 euros.

Income by category. The Gallura taxpayers who declare from 0 to 10 thousand euro per year are 37,690, those from 10 thousand to 15 thousand are 17,411, those from 15 thousand to 26 thousand are 30,779, those from 26 thousand to 55 thousand are 17,176, those from 55 thousand to 75 thousand are 1582, those from 75 thousand to 120 thousand are 1145 and those over 120 thousand are 440.

Comparison with 2017. As Cipnes Gallura we have compared the 2018 Irpef statements to those of 2017. The Gallura taxpayers increased by 1435 units: they were 107,258 in 2017 and became 108,693 in 2018 with a percentage growth of 1.3%. The largest increase in absolute terms was recorded in Olbia, from 39,104 taxpayers to 39,823 (+1.8%). In Arzachena taxpayers increased from 9306 to 9428 (+1.3%).

The income brackets of the Gallurians grew the highest: taxpayers over 120 thousand euro rose from 388 to 440 (+13.4%); those between 16 thousand and 55 thousand euro from 15,979 to 17. 176 (+7.5%); taxpayers between 75 thousand and 120 thousand euro from 1077 to 1145 (+6.3%); those between 55 thousand and 75 thousand from 1508 to 1582 (+4.9) The centre with the highest taxpayers over 29 thousand euro is Olbia (180) followed by Arzachena (90).


Currently suspended 20 thousand employees.

 The list of activities that restart on May 4

 

Every day 21 thousand people from Gallura area go to work in the companies that continue to operate in the north-east of Sardinia, including those in the industrial area of Cipnes Gallura. Of these, more than 10 thousand work in Olbia, whose number of active employees is equal to 58% of the total, a percentage higher than the average both regional (52%) and national (55.7%). These are the results of a study by Istat on productive sectors (industry, services) suspended and active after the decrees of the President of the Council for the Coronavirus emergency.

The number of active workers is expected to grow from next May 4, when the last decree of the Prime Minister, signed on April 26, will unblock some sectors currently suspended: cork, manufacturing, stone, textiles, glass. At the moment 19,981 Gallura's workers are at a standstill because the companies on which they depend, or the activities they conduct, are suspended.

The National Institute of Statistics has carried out the analysis at municipal level, for the whole country, verifying the economic activities according to the Ateco codes; the research has been made on the last available data, those of 2017. The count does not include workers in the public administration (police, health, municipal administration employees), agriculture, banks and insurance companies.

After the publication of the decree of 22 March, in Italy 55.7% of companies are active, in Sardinia 52% and in Gallura 51.7%. In the Gallura area there are 21,434 employees at work in the permitted activities.  Specifically, there are 3830 workers in the industrial sector and 17,604 in the services sector; there are 5945 workers in the industrial sector and 14,036 in the services sector.

At municipal level, Olbia has 10,426 active employees, of which 1931 in the industrial sector and 8495 in the service sector and among these there are also those of the companies in the industrial area of Cipnes; the suspended employees are 7540, of which 2072 in the industrial sector and 5468 in the service sector. Arzachena has 2350 active workers, of which 316 in the industrial sector and 2034 in the services sector; there are 2945 suspended workers, of which 710 in the industrial sector and 2235 in the services sector. Arzachena, which is the second largest centre in Gallura in terms of number of workers and is characterised by a strong tourism economy, has a percentage of active companies of 44.3%, lower than the regional and national average.On 4 May the regulatory framework will change again and the economy of Olbia and Gallura will also start up again in a significant way. Below is a list of all permitted activities.

 

 

 

There are 99 of them and they're almost 20 more than allowed right now:

01 agricultural crops and production of animal products, hunting and related service activities; 02 forestry and logging; 03 fishing and aquaculture; 05 coal mining (except peat); 06 crude oil and natural gas extraction; 07 mining of metal ores; 08 mining of other minerals from quarries and mines; 09 mining support service activities; 10 food industry; 11 beverage industry; 12 tobacco industry; 13 textile industry; 14 manufacture of wearing apparel; manufacture of leather and fur products; 15 manufacture of leather and related products; 16  wood and and cork manufacture (except furniture); manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials; 17 manufacture of paper and paper products; 18 printing and reproduction of recorded media; 19 manufacture of coke and products derived from petroleum refining; 20 manufacture of chemical products; 21 manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations; 22 manufacture of rubber and plastic products; 23 manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products; 24 metallurgy; 25 manufacture of metal products (except machinery and equipment); 26 manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; electromedical equipment, measuring equipment and watches; 27 manufacture of electrical equipment and non-electrical household equipment; 28 manufacture of machinery and equipment nca; 29 manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; 30 manufacture of other transport equipment; 31 manufacture of furniture; 32 other manufacturing industries; 33 repair, maintenance and installation of machinery and equipment; 35 supply of electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning; 36 water collection, treatment and supply; 37 sewerage management; 38 waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery; 39 remediation and other waste management services; 41 construction of buildings; 42 civil engineering; 43 specialised construction activities; 45 wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; 46 wholesale trade (excluding motor vehicles and motorcycles); 49 land transport and pipeline transport; 50 maritime and water transport; 51 air transport; 52 warehousing and support activities for transportation; 53 postal and courier activities; 55 hotels and similar establishments 58 publishing activities; 59 film, video and television programme, music and sound recording, production, post-production and distribution activities; 60 programming and broadcasting activities; 61 telecommunications; 62 software production, consultancy and related activities; 63 information and other computer service activities; 64 financial service activities (except insurance and pension funding); 65 insurance, reinsurance and pension funding activities (except compulsory social security activities); 66 activities auxiliary to financial services and insurance activities; 68 real estate activities; 69 legal and accounting activities; 70 management and management consulting activities; 71 architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis; 72 scientific research and development; 73 advertising and market research; 74 other professional, scientific and technical activities; 75 veterinary activities; 78 research, selection and supply of personnel; 80 supervisory and investigative activities; 81. 2 cleaning and pest control activities; 81.3 landscape care and maintenance (including parks, gardens and flowerbeds); 82 office support activities and other business support services; 84 public administration and defence activities; compulsory social security (note: the activities of the p.a. activities covered herein do not involve registration in the business register); 85 education; 86 health care; 87 residential social work; 88 non-residential social work; 94 activities of membership organisations; 95 repair of computers and personal and household goods; 97 activities of households as employers for domestic staff; 99 extraterritorial organisations and bodies.