Makers: who they are and what they do

Guide to the digital artisans involved in the fair of innovation in Olbia

Chris Anderson is a journalist and was the editor of Wired magazine from 2001 to 2012. He temporarily interrupted his journalistic career and dedicated himself to the 4.0 industry. He founded a  company in California, called 3D Robotics, which produces software for drones, but above all he studied - and then explained - what are the makers, the digital craftsmen, a world of which he is considered one of the greatest experts in the world. One of his books, published in Italy by Rizzoli in 2013 with the title "Makers, the return of manufacturers. For a new industrial revolution", is considered the guide of this sector. The best way to understand who the makers are and what they do - the main characters of "Maker Island", the event scheduled at the Archaeological Museum of Olbia from October 16 to 18 with the organization of the Fab Lab of Olbia and the Cipnes Gallura support - is to listen to his words. In this way it will be possible to get an idea of who will be at the Archaeological Museum and above all what will be presented (objects, prototypes, work tools).

"Just as the advent of the pc has changed our lives, the 3D printer will do it with our children's lives, because what they imagine can be realized immediately - said Anderson speaking, in 2013, at the World Business Forum in Milan, in the synthesis made by Digital 360 -. If we combine the potential of the 3D printer with those of the web, we can really realize anything, and give shape to an idea of someone on the other side of the world simply by receiving his file and printing it at home. This is what is called "cloud manufacturing"".

"Creativity, too, has been revolutionized - added Anderson -. Before we used to create ourselves in our own garages or gather in small groups to collect ideas, now we can do it together in large communities on the web. Today even ordinary people can succeed: it's not necessary to have great means, great ideas are enough. Today with a smartphone app we can photograph reality, upload the images to the cloud and send them to a 3D printer that can reprint the object we photographed in any color or size or material. And if today this technically only concerns the wrapping of the objects, tomorrow it will be possible also for the internal mechanical part: we can do everything autonomously, we could reproduce and modify reality".

" Therefore, summarizing the history of the last twenty years we have two phases - the journalist clarified -: the past decade has served to look for new social and innovative models on the web, while the next ten years will serve to translate them into the real world".

"If until a few years ago the digital revolution was confined to computer screens, today it allows us to manufacture real objects - Anderson explained -. Today on our workbench we can have tools that before were accessible only with large capital - 3D printers, CAD programs, small "open source" control boards like Arduino, which was invented in Italy - and access the knowledge of thousands of people in the web communities, exchanging opinions and advice. In this way we can for example manufacture a prototype of a drone when a few days before we didn't know anything about drones: many people call this the revolution of the makers".

"But you can also close the circle, passing from "digital prototyping" to "digital manufacturing", thanks to cloud computing - he explained -. In recent years online marketplaces have appeared, such as Alibaba in China and in the USA, which put individual makers in contact with factories that accept orders from anyone, and based on the project they are sent can produce thousands of pieces".

Summing up, for Anderson - as Massimo Menichinelli explains in the book "FabLab e Maker", Edizioni Quodlibet - "a maker is anyone who uses digital tools with a common computer to develop projects and prototypes by himself. Moreover, a maker normally shares his projects online and collaborates with the maker community".

And this is exactly what, even in Sardinia, dozens of makers do: they have ideas, they "build" them on their pc or smartphone, they share them via web, they realize them with their own 3D printers or made available to them by Fab Labs, like the one in Olbia, for example. Professionals destined to be increasingly important for the economy and everyday life; digital artisans who in Olbia - at the Maker Island of the Arceheological Museum - will be able to illustrate their ideas, make themselves understood by the general public, make business agreements with companies and find partners willing to finance their projects. 


 Sardinia relaunch, here are the loans for companiesT

hey are at zero interest and reduced rate. All information at Cipnes Agency

 It becomes operational the support tool for businesses in Sardinia affected by the Coronavirus emergency. In fact, it is possible to access the loans, at zero interest and subsidized rate, provided by the Region of Sardinia with the program "Emergency Sardinia Enterprises" in implementation of the resolution of the Council 13/11 of 17 March 2020. The Support for Enterprises and Territorial Development" division of Cipnes Gallura, in Olbia, is willing to provide help and further information on the submission of applications for grants (to have an appointment, write to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).

What is the help.

The interventions consist in loans at zero interest and subsidized rate in combination with possible subsidies and are aimed at encouraging the economic recovery of business activities in the region, improving the financial strength of companies.

Who are the beneficiaries.

They are the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MPMI) and Large Enterprises (GI) that demonstrate that they have had negative repercussions as a result of the emergency linked to Covid-19, or that they represent the need to make investments to ensure the continuity or business relaunch.

How the interventions are articulated.

The financial products are divided into two macro categories. The "Product 1" which consists of interest-free loans for individual companies up to a maximum of 800,000 euros usable both for liquidity needs (duration 15 years) and for investments (duration 20 years), including 24 months of pre-amortization. Product 2", on the other hand, concerns loans up to 5,000,000 euro that can also be used both for liquidity requirements (duration 15 years) and for investments (duration 20 years). In this case it is previewed the application of a facilitated rate in the case in which the plan of amortization has maximum duration of 6 years (inclusive of eventual 24 months of preamortization). If the amortization plan has a duration of more than 6 years (i.e. up to 15 years for liquidity and 20 years for investments) an interest rate is provided for in accordance with EU Communication 2008/C14/02. In these cases, companies benefiting from Product 2 may apply for and receive a subsidy equal to the value of the interest payments due under such loans.

How loans can be used.

Both loans, Product 1 and Product 2, may be used, subject to the positive outcome of the preliminary bank assessment procedure, for new financial exposures and to refinance 90% of existing exposures.

When to submit applications.

Applications for access to the facilities may be submitted from the following dates: from 14 September 2020 through "Banco di Sardegna" (first selected financial intermediary); from 16 September 2020 through Intesa SanPaolo bank (second selected financial intermediary).


Three regional grants for craftsmen

Aids for sheds and machines. More information at Cipnes Agency

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Sardinia Region has made operational three contributions in favour of artisan enterprises. They are contributions on account of interest, capital and royalties. The "Support for Enterprises and Territorial Development" (Agency) division of Cipnes  Gallura, in Olbia  is at the artisans' disposal to provide help and further information regarding the submission of applications for contributions (to have an appointment, write to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).


Normative references

The Sardinia Region, with resolution 40/36 of August 4, 2020, has approved the operating procedures for the granting of interest and capital grants related to subsidized credit operations (art. 37 of Law no. 949  of   July 25, 1952) and grants for lease payments (art. 23, paragraph 1, of Law no. 240 of May 21, 1981).

 The beneficiaries.

Grants may be given to artisan enterprises, also established as cooperatives or consortiums, registered as artisan enterprises (special section) in the Register of Companies in accordance with Regional Law 32 of 2016.

What are the artisan credit facilities offered.

1 - Interest rate subsidy, determined as a percentage of the reference rate in force on the date the loan contract was signed, equal to 64%.

2 - Capital contribution, determined as 40% (without prejudice to the "de minimis" ceilings set out in EU Regulation no. 1407/2013) of the cost incurred for the investment.

3 - Contribution for the reduction of guarantee costs, when the financing for which the interest contribution is requested is guaranteed for at least 50% by a Confidi; the contribution in this case is equal to 0.50% per year of the amount of the operation, for a maximum of 5 years.

What are the facilities for financial leasing.

1 - Contribution on lease payments, determined as a percentage of the reference rate in force on the date the lease contract was signed, equal to 64%.

2 - Contribution on capital account, the contribution is determined to the extent of 40% of eligible expenditure, recognized in two installments.

3 - Contribution for the reduction of guarantee costs, when the financial operation for which the fee contribution is requested is guaranteed for at least 50% by a Confidi; the contribution in this case is equal to 0.50% per year of the amount of the operation, for a maximum of 5 years.

What can the contributions be requested for.

The financing for which the regional contribution is requested (in interest and capital account) must be aimed exclusively at the purchase of land for the construction of premises functional to the artisan activity, renovation of buildings at the service of the artisan activity, purchase of machinery at the service of the artisan activity, purchase of software, patent rights, purchase of raw materials and finished products and other specific items of expenditure contained in the annexes to the Regional Council Resolution No. 40/36 of August 4, 2020.

Where to submit applications.

The application for admission to the concessions must be filled in and forwarded via web to the managing body (at present and until further public selection, the identified managing body is Artigiancassa Sardegna) through the Banks (art. 13 of Legislative Decree no. 385/1993) and the Artisan Associations of the category.


Resto al Sud, the non-refundable grant increases to 50%.

News for the birth of new enterprises of the under 46 in Sardinia


Important news for "Resto al Sud", the measure that supports the birth in Sardinia of companies led by the under 46s. The Relaunch Decree has increased the non-refundable contribution from 30 to 50% of the investment. The new form of relief applies to projects submitted after 19 July 2020. An extra contribution has also been provided upon completion of the first project. For the first time, funding is also allowed to consolidate the activities of companies established after 21 June 2017.

Anyone who has a business idea and wants to see it financed, can make use of the Cipnes Gallura services, which has been recognised by the Invitalia Agency as an accredited incentive body. The staff of the "Support for Business and Territorial Development" Division, based in Olbia, is available to "develop your business idea together with you". You can call 0789.597125 or send an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. The service is totally free.

What is Resto al Sud. It is a measure that supports the birth of new entrepreneurial activities in the South of Italy (therefore also in Sardinia).

Who can get the incentive. People under 46 (they must not be 46 years old). From the point of view of legal form, sole proprietorships and companies established after 21 June 2017 can obtain it. Freelance professionals can also obtain it but "in the twelve months preceding the application for the incentive, they must not have a VAT number for an activity similar to the one proposed for financing".

Which sectors are eligible for financing. The production of goods in the sectors of industry, crafts, processing of agricultural and food products, fishing and aquaculture; the provision of services to businesses and individuals; tourism.

Which sectors are not eligible for funding. Primary agricultural production activities and trade.

Which expenditure are eligible. Expenditure on the renovation or exceptional maintenance of real estate, the purchase of plant, machinery, equipment and computer programs and the main items of expenditure useful for the start-up of the activity, including expenditure on business promotion.

The percentage of support. Resto al Sud covers 100% of eligible expenditure.

The non-refundable percentage. Previously the contribution was 30%. Since 19 July the percentage has increased to 50% of the total investment.

How the remaining 50% is financed. With bank financing, guaranteed by the SME Guarantee Fund. The interest of the financing is fully covered by an interest subsidy provided by Invitalia.

Ceilings in eligible expenses. They can be financed up to 60 thousand euros in the case of a sole trader and 50 thousand euros for each component in the case of a company, with a maximum of 4 beneficiary members for a total of 200 thousand euros.

New contributions. A further non-repayable grant is foreseen at the end of the admitted and correctly reported project. The extra contribution - to cover working capital requirements - is 15 thousand euros for activities carried out as a sole proprietorship and 10 thousand euros for each member, up to a maximum of 40 thousand euros for activities carried out as a company.

Companies already active can be financed. This is another novelty. Companies established and operating after 21 June 2017 are henceforth allowed access to the measure also through spending programmes aimed at consolidating, diversifying and improving production processes.


Contributions for recruitment in 2020

The Region's aid to tourism enterprises. Information at Cipnes Gallura

Aid to tourism enterprises in Sardinia (and workers) comes from the Sardinia Region in the form of subsidies for recruitment. In fact, a notice entitled 'Destinazione Sardegna Lavoro 2020' has been published which - in implementation of Regional Law No 8 of 2020 - provides financial support to companies that have suffered damage as a result of the Coronavirus. The tourism sector was the most affected in Sardinia: in hotels alone there were 26,000 fewer hires than in 2019, according to the latest report by Aspal Sardegna. However, there are now signs of recovery - in July recruitment exceeded that of 2019 - and public aid will serve to strengthen this trend. Let's see, in detail, who is entitled to subsidies and what they have to do to get them, even with the help of Cipnes Gallura.

Form of aid: direct grant.

Aid amount: from EUR 400 to a maximum of EUR 1700 per recruitment.

Aid period: granted for recruitments from 1 February 2020 to 1 December 2020.

Who is qualified (companies): tourism enterprises. Here are some activities that can be financed: hotels, holiday villages, rooms-to-let, restaurants, bars, ice-cream and pastry shops, catering, real estate brokerage, taxi transport, transport by hire, activities related to air transport.

Requirements: to have a production unit in Sardinia, to have stipulated regular contracts, not to have dismissed except for just cause, not to have obtained other aid for the same workers.

Who are the recipients of the grant (workers): young people under 35 (under 35), unemployed people over 35 and women over 35 (over 35); all resident or domiciled in Sardinia.

When to apply: from 30 July.

How to obtain grants: the staff of the "Support for Businesses and Territorial Development" division of Cipnes Gallura is at the disposal of companies, in the Olbia office, for further clarification and to submit the application to the Region of Sardinia. Here is the link to contact us:


Aspal: in Sardinia in July hirings in excess of 2019

Labour market recovering, it's the first time since lockdown

"In Sardinia, for the first time since the beginning of the crisis caused by the Coronavirus, the recruitments in 2020 are higher than in the same period in 2019".  It happened in the first weeks of July, "with a very sharp acceleration". This is communicated by Aspal Sardegna, the agency for active labour policies, in its periodical bulletin.

"This means that the recovery of the labour market is increasingly pronounced and that some recruitments postponed in the previous weeks are finally materialising," writes the Agency. The recovery is linked to "fixed-term contracts, while permanent contracts are not showing significant signs of improvement".

The analysis of Aspal Sardegna starts on 19 February and ends on 14 July 2020. Over 95,000 contracts were signed during this period. There were 66 thousand less contracts than in 2019. Of these, 15,400 just in the Olbia area.

Overall, the sector with the greatest losses was that of hotels and restaurants (- 25,600 hires). The most penalized type of contract was temporary contracts (-52,000 hires); the age groups with the least hiring were 25-34 years (-18,000) and 35-44 years (-16,000).


Insula cornerstone of Sardinia's production system

Agreement between Cipnes and three regional councillorships for internationalisation

The Cipnes Gallura and the Sardinia Region with three councillorships (Tourism as lead partner, Agriculture and Industry) have signed an agreement for the "promotion and internationalisation of the identity production chains and the promotion of the Sardinian territories". The agreement, which will be made operational by the Insula territorial marketing platform over the next three years, aims to strengthen the Sardinian production system, in particular the agrifood, crafts and sustainable tourism sectors.

It was signed with the resolution of the Regional Council of July 9, 2020, the agreement is complementary to the Strategic Programme "Insula Sardinia Enterprise P.T.E.", coordinated by the Agrifood and territorial marketing division of Cipnes Gallura, and to the Strategic Tourism Plan "Destination Sardinia 2018-2021", coordinated by the Regional Department of Tourism, Crafts and Commerce. The mission is twofold: to promote the excellence of Sardinia abroad, offering companies access to new markets, and to promote a sustainable tourist Sardinia abroad, attracting new visitors to the island. There are five points to be made. The first is related to agriculture. It foresees the " regional territorial marketing program "Insula" for the aggregation, innovation, promotion and internationalization of the identity production chains and territories of Sardinia, through the multifunctional public platform "Insula-Sardinia Enterprise P.T.E.", currently being implemented in the production district of Cipnes in Olbia, and its peripheral operating units "Insula Sardinia Village", such as those of Porto Cervo (in the photo last year's inauguration) and Forte Village.

The second, also linked to agrifood, is aimed at tourism. It has the objective of implementing the "Insula - Sardinia Quality World" territorial marketing project aimed at supporting a path of promotion, internationalization, production and distribution development of the certified quality identity chains of Sardinia and art, with the aim of innovating, diversifying and differentiating the Sardinian Destination also through new themes, such as the " Wine and Food Tourism Paths" and the artistic creations of the "Master craftsmen of Sardinia". The third point has a strong social and cultural value. The aim of the agreement between Cipnes and the Sardinia Region is in fact to "implement the institutional ethical-solidarity project "Insula - Tottumpare... for a united and supportive Sardinia", aimed at supporting companies in the Sardinian agri-food sector through a strategic promotional-information campaign and an ethical-solidarity campaign which, involving the regional distribution system, orients the consumption choices towards Sardinian agri-food production".

The fourth point is essentially tourism. It envisages the "implementation of the Strategic Tourism Plan "Destination Sardinia 2018-2021", with attention to the joint implementation of regional institutional projects for the promotion of tourism in Sardinia and to qualify local production excellence through the coordinated development of qualified marketing, communication, promotion and promo-commercialisation activities".

Finally, the fifth point, which is based on the exhibition market. It has as its objective the "design and implementation of fair promotional actions at regional, national and international level to support processes of competitive development, cooperation and internationalization of the regional system of companies, with focus on the production chains of tourism, agrifood, crafts and design".

Great satisfaction for the agreement with Cipnes Gallura was expressed by the Regional Councillor for Tourism Gianni Chessa, who carried the project forward. "I am particularly proud to have completed this first phase of the active collaboration with Cipnes Gallura, whose initiatives I have followed since the beginning of my mandate, also (but not only) with direct participation in its events, not only in Costa Smeralda - explains the Councillor -. It is my belief that, through these strategic agreements, we can increasingly enhance the value of the products of our land and export the name of Sardinia all over the world. Now, together with our fellow councillors for Industry and Agriculture, we will carry out all the initiatives and acts aimed at the full implementation of the objectives set out in the framework agreement".

The Cipnes cycle path that produces energy

 3.5 kilometres covered with photovoltaic panels: benefits for health, landscape and costs


It takesyu energy to walk it, it produces energy for the environment. In addition to the 1000 kilometres of cycle paths programmed by the Sardinia Region, the Cipnes Gallura one adds its 3.5 kilometres between Olbia and Pozzo Sacro (which can also be covered by pedestrians and runners) with an innovative and eco-sustainable intervention: it will be built with photovoltaic panels. The Cipnes track, therefore, will help physical well-being but will also serve to generate clean energy and reduce the costs of the institution.

The work has been financed by the European Union's "Jessica" Fund with a 20-year loan of 5 million euros at zero interest and repayable with energy savings. The Regional Department of Industry has granted Cipnes the single authorization for the execution of the works: the construction sites will open in September 2020. The runway - which will be interconnected with the one planned by the Municipality of Olbia - will start in via Indonesia (where today there is McDonald's) and then it will run in via Guinea, on provincial road 82 (the main street of the production district), in via Armenia and via Eritrea (by the "Pozzo Sacro" area).

The route - 3.5 kilometers long and 4 meters wide - will be covered by 18,000 square meters of colored photovoltaic panels, consisting of 7296 modules with a power of 270 Wp each. The total power will be almost 2 MWp divided into three different connection points: the first (1821 panels, equal to 492.48 kW) near the water purifier; the second (3648 panels, 984.96 kW) in the area of the sewage treatment plant and the third (1824 panels. 492.48 Kw) in the Cipnes Gallura headquarters.

The track will be reserved both for those who want to run or walk and for those who want to ride a bike. There will be bike sharing stations (bike sharing), a sustainable mobility tool available to public administrations wishing to support the use of public transport. Electric bicycles will be placed in the stations after use to recharge the batteries. The bikes will be locked or can be used with a key or a magnetic card. The service is therefore not available to everyone but requires registration.

This new facility provides important benefits for the community and the economic system. The photovoltaic panels will produce energy with zero environmental impact and will aesthetically upgrade the Olbia production district. The energy produced will enable Cipnes to significantly reduce its consortium energy bill, which in recent years has seen significant increases in expenditure due both to higher hydrocarbon costs and to increased consumption due to new implementations of services in the various phases of management of the consortium plants and infrastructures.

The project was born from an innovative idea of the engineer Giovanni Maurelli, manager of the Environmental Hygiene sector of Cipnes, and of the General Management of Cipnes, and was prepared by the technical structure of Cipnes (the project was designed by the engineer Giuseppe Mula, with the collaboration of Bastianino Mariano, Fabrizio Palitta, Arturo Aramini, Oscar Cannas and Mario Chiapponi; the engineer Antonio Catgiu is in charge of the procedure) and shared by the consortium local authorities and in particular by the Municipality of Olbia.


A thousand kilometres of cycle paths in Sardinia

The Region approves the project for sustainable mobility and tourism promotion


Between incentives for physical well-being and tourism promotion, the Region of Sardinia supports the realization of the "Cycle of Sardinia" (photo), a 1046 km long plan that offers the "possibility to connect all the ports and airports of Sardinia - explains the regional government - and allow the cyclist to choose, among several entry alternatives, the chosen route to visit, by bike, Sardinia far and wide".

The project has been going on for some years now and has now entered its operational phase: the regional council, with a resolution dated 26 May 2020, has decided to identify as a priority, for the "Cycle of Sardinia", the route between north and south, between Alghero and Cagliari (the second route is the eastern one and concerns Gallura, starting from Santa Teresa and to Cagliari).

For the priority axis, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport allocated €16.6 million and the regional government immediately released €2 million for the completion and design of the Cagliari-Elmas-Barumini and Alghero-Porto Torres -Cagliari routes.

The " Cycle of Sardinia" therefore takes shape. And also Olbia and Gallura are part of it. For Olbia there is a connection between the city and the port of the Isola Bianca and the Costa Smeralda airport: the Region has cut out the intervention and has identified the Municipality of Olbia as the implementer. Another significant project is the one within the Cipnes Gallura areas that we will talk about shortly.

The long journey of sustainable and touristic cycling began five years ago, when the Sardinia Region approved the "Regional Network of Bicycle Routes" with a funding of 8 million (resolution of 7 May 2015). Subsequently, with a resolution of 16 June 2016, it allocated a further 7 million to "Cycling mobility in metropolitan areas (Cagliari, Sassari, Olbia)".

With the resolution of 31 January 2017, the Region took more than one step forward. First, it identified five priority routes: Alghero - Porto Torres - Sassari - Badesi (115.84 km); Ozieri/Chilivani - Illorai (Tirso Station) - Macomer - Bosa (164.17 km); Cagliari - Elmas - Assemini - San Gavino - Sanluri - Isili (113.78 km); Tharros - Oristano - Terralba and Oristano - Bosa (133.79 km); Santa Margherita di Pula - Cagliari - Villasimius - Villaputzu (149.75 km). Secondly, it approved the three metropolitan routes, including the section for the Olbia plan.

Also in 2017, the Region has included the " Sardinia Cycle Route" within the national plan called "National System of Tourist Cycle Routes". Now, with the tranche of 2 million, it has given the go-ahead for the construction of the first pieces of the mosaic of cycle paths on the island, within which there are the five routes (attachments 2 and 3 to the resolution of May 2020). Priority, as said, has been given to the Western North-South route.










Tourist presences, Arzachena among the top 50 destinations in Italy

It has the leadership in Sardinia, Olbia in the third place. Germans, Lombards and Swiss at the top

The Gallura region is the "province" of Sardinia with the highest percentage of foreign tourists.  It has the largest number of hotels in the 5 star luxury and extra-luxury category. But it is also the one that has the first tourist destination, for number of presences, of Sardinia and among the first 50 in Italy: Arzachena.

It is a record linked to the Costa Smeralda but also to the other tourist resorts on the coast: Poltu Quatu, Baja Sardinia, Cala Bitta and Cannigione (in the photo by Marcello Chiodino the mouth of the river San Giovanni). A system of hospitality consolidated and tested in sixty years of experience that represents one of the strong points of the Gallura production system, because it involves many companies, in particular those in the boating industry in the Cipnes Gallura production district.

Let's see the data in detail. The tourist presence in Arzachena in the 2019 season - as indicated by the recent report of the Region of Sardinia - was 1 million 222 thousand, with an increase of 1.2% on 2018. In second place we find Alghero (1 million 181 thousand presences) and in third place the capital of Gallura, Olbia, with 891 thousand presences. Arzachena has been included by Istat in the top 50 of Italy's tourist destinations, in 43rd place; it is a special ranking in which another Sardinian city, Alghero, also appears in 49th place.

Arzachena, then, is the place where tourists stay and spend money  the most. In order to understand who the vacationers are, we need to analyze more data.

First of all, most tourists come from abroad: 66% of the presences, according to the Sardinia Region data, which in 2019 covered 70% of the total presences. A very high percentage, also confirmed by Istat in the last report "Tourist Movement in Italy" and referred to 2018. "In Southern Italy, the foreign presence is very consistent in Sorrento (89.1%), Taormina (83.5%), Alghero and Arzachena (71.4% and 65.6%)" writes the National Institute of Statistics.

We are also able to establish the ranking, by origin, of tourists in Arzachena in 2018, the last available data. In first place - as we read in the Sardinia Region report - there are the Germans (289 thousand presences); then, to follow, Lombardy (105 thousand presences), Swiss (80 thousand), British (77 thousand), from Lazio (49 thousand), France (47 thousand), Austria (44 thousand), from Campania (36 thousand), Sardinia (36 thousand), Emilia-Romagna (31 thousand), Piedmont (30 thousand), Veneto (29 thousand), Holland (26 thousand) and the United States (23 thousand). Finally, we also have the opportunity to know which months have the highest number of tourists: August (300 thousand), July (267 thousand), June (210 thousand), September (214 thousand) and May (117 thousand).