The Costa Smeralda's economic system starts again
Hotels, villas, ports are about to open. The nautical district enterprises of Cipnes Gallura at work.
The Costa Smeralda ecomomic system, one of the main ones in Gallura, starts again. In recent days the "Luci di la Muntagna" Hotel, opened in 1966, and the Yacht Club “Costa Smeralda”, founded in 1967 by Prince Karim Aga Khan, have reopened. From tomorrow, in turn, it will be the turn of the historic hotels Cala di Volpe, Cervo, Romazzino and Pitrizza, which will start their 57th season, the most difficult ever because of the Coronavirus situation. Many villas have already been opened by their owners or those to whom they have rented it and a fair number of yachts, even large ones, have begun to cross the waters of Cala di Volpe and Pevero.
The Costa Smeralda, with its related industries, is very important for many companies in Gallura, in particular for those in the nautical sector of the Cipnes Gallura, and for many workers in Sardinia, who in many cases find stable and annual employment in Porto Cervo and in many other seasonal jobs.
"We strongly wanted to reopen all our activities in advance of most of the main tourist destinations in the Mediterranean - says the CEO of Smeralda Holding, Mario Ferraro - to support the sector and restart the local economy at a very difficult time, although in reality the destination will only start to fill up from July 10 onwards. Thanks to its characteristics, the Costa Smeralda, with its uncontaminated nature and low tourist density with large spaces that are never crowded, is the ideal destination to spend a safe and peaceful holiday".
Controlled by the sovereign fund of Qatar, Smeralda Holding is the main consortium member and controls four hotels (Cala di Volpe, Cervo, Romazzino and Pitrizza), the marina of Porto Cervo, the Pevero golf course, shops and 2300 hectares of unused land. "We have an average of 1000 employees in season and 84% of them are Sardinian - they let the company know -. We pay salaries in Sardinia for 23 million a year and we purchase goods and services from Sardinian companies for 26 million a year". The attendance during the 2019 season in the four hotels were almost 92 thousand - said CEO Ferraro at the Cipnes Gallura -, of which over 23 thousand at Cala di Volpe, over 22 thousand at Cervo, almost 22 thousand at Romazzino and 14 thousand at Pitrizza.
Another historic player in the Costa Smeralda's economy is the Yacht Club "Costa Smeralda", which deals with the hotel industry and the organisation of world-class regattas. "We reopened the structure and all the activities in safety on June 20th," said Commodore Riccardo Bonadeo. "During the period of forced closure, all the provisions were implemented and adapted to the reality of the YCCS to ensure members, guests, partners and staff, safety and peace of mind during their stay on the Costa Smeralda. The extension of the season until the end of October is also confirmed, in the hope that this decision will have a positive impact on the territory and can be a driving force for the various local tourist services. The extension of the YCCS opening period will also allow the regattas to be held in late October".
The quays of the luxurious and exclusive Porto Cervo marina, where there are numerous activities starting from Insula, will therefore be animated by an international customers from July 3 (departure day of the European Cup Smeralda 888) until October 15 (with Sailing Champions Leauge). In between, there will be the prestigious Maxi Yacht Rolex Cup (30 August) and Rolex Swan Cup (6 September).
Sailing and sailing are among the main voices of the economy of the Costa Smeralda and also of Gallura. The presence of numerous yachts - during the summer of 2019 their value was 4 billion - has increased the size of Gallura's companies, many of which are located in the boating district of Cipnes Gallura: in total there are 62, or 11% of the total, the majority percentage of companies located in the production area of Olbia.
Tourist ports and maxi yachts, the primacy of the Gallura region
In its coasts there are 46% of the berths in Sardinia. The giants of the sea create a millionaire economy
In the Gallura's economic system, the nautical and shipbuilding sector, closely linked to the tourism industry, assumes an important weight. Just as in the hospitality of Italian and foreign visitors, in the world of the sea Gallura holds the leadership in Sardinia: in its coastline 46% of berths and 44% of tourist ports are concentrated in Sardinia.
The data from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, contained in the annual publication entitled "Boating pleasure in Italy", let us know that out of 13,800 marinas in Sardinia (including berths and moorings), over 6,000 are in Gallura, understood as the area of the 26 municipalities that made up the old province of Olbia-Tempio, and that out of almost 20,000 berths in Sardinia, over 9,000 are in Gallura.
Very interesting, for this aspect, is the data on berths over 24 meters, those intended for maxi yachts, real companies for the impact they have on the economy and employment. Gallura has 339 berths of this size out of 528 in Sardinia, equal to over 64% of the total.
Going into municipal detail, we see that the largest number of berths is in the municipality of Olbia: 2391 berths, equal to almost 26% of all Gallura. Among the ports, there are those of Porto Rotondo and Portisco. Immediately after Olbia, there is Arzachena with 1733 berths (almost 19% of all Gallura); among the marinas, that of Porto Cervo. In third place there is La Maddalena with 1455 berths.
The publication of the Ministry of Infrastructure also provides information about the number of vessels. We learn that in Sardinia there are 881 "sailing leisure boats" registered: of these 399 in the maritime compartment of Olbia (45% of Sardinia) and 93 in that of La Maddalena (10% of the total). There are 2995 "motorised pleasure craft" throughout Sardinia: of these 1650 are registered in the Olbia maritime area ( 55% of the Sardinian total) and 292 in that of La Maddalena (10% of the total).
These days the seas of Gallura are getting sailed by maxi yachts, many of which moor in Costa Smeralda and Porto Rotondo, as happened today with the arrival of Sailing Yacht A, the largest sailing yacht in the world. This is an important signal for the tourist economy in the strict sense of the word, but also for the nautical district of the Cipnes Gallura. In the production area of Olbia there are in fact 62 companies in the boating and shipbuilding industry, equal to 11% of all the companies in the Cipnes, which employ 374 people, equal to 8 of the total employment. Their activity is concentrated both in construction, storage and assistance.
This sector, which continues to grow throughout the world, is one of the most encouraging for the recovery and strengthening of the Gallura economy. As analyzed by a study by Carlo Marcetti and Francesca Palmas from the University of Sassari conducted on estimates by Federagenti in 2015 - "a superyacht from 30 to 60 meters in length, on average generates an annual expenditure of 2.35 million euros, employs 15 crew and among maintenance workers, electricians, technicians, on-board suppliers, dealers creates an induced activity for about 75 families. A superyacht of 60 to 80 metres, on average, generates an annual expenditure of 3.95 million euros, employs an average of 25 men for the crew and creates a supply chain of 140 other workers".
The "Folletti di Kines" Children's Center reopens.
Maximum security in the facilities. Guaranteed sea service
Starting from Monday 6th July, the Cipnes-Gallura Children's Centre "i Folletti di Kines" reopens. All the services for children from 3 months to 11 years of age (nursery and summer centre) will be reactivated - from Monday to Friday from 8 am to 7 pm. The beach service will also be confirmed (twice a week) for children between 3 and 11 years of age.
The facility will reopen, after the stop due to the coronavirus emergency, in strict observance of the complex regulatory framework and absolute compliance with the precise regulations on safety measures for the prevention and containment of the SARS-COV-2 spread.
The leisure-recreational activities, laboratories and games, will be carried out in indoor and outdoor modes. In the activities planned on the beach will make use of the structure of the State concessionaire, in compliance with health and safety regulations, which will provide a number of umbrellas proportional to the number of children present.
The beach will be reached with the means of transport of an external company specialized in the transport of people, and the accompanying persons will ensure the physical distance both inside the means of transport and in the phases of entry and exit from the bus, according to the new provisions.
The structure is equipped with a regularly authorized kitchen and canteen service for the preparation and administration of meals, prepared according to the summer menu authorized by the ASL, and consumed in the sections where each child will have its own space/counter in compliance with the distance required by the regulations.
Every day the operators, who are obliged to wear the mask during the work activities, will be subjected to the measurement of the temperature which, if it was higher than 37.5°, would determine the immediate removal from the structure. At the entrance will be prepared to wash hands with sanitizing gel.
As foreseen by the recent regulations, for children from 0 to 5 years old, the ratio of 1 operator/educator/animator every 5 children will be respected; for children from 6 to 11 years old, 1 every 7 children.
Olbia Harbour, two docks reopened to traffic
The works on the White Island seabed have been completed. A study on the impact of the waves is in progress.
The Olbia commercial port is back in full operation. The intervention on the seabed has brought the depth back to minus 9 meters and ferries and cruise ships can dock again in piers 3 and 4 of the Isola Bianca. The work was carried out by the company "Appalti Generali Imag Srl", which moved about 3 thousand cubic meters of muddy material, levelling it, as required by the legislation, in the surrounding areas.
Every year on Isola Bianca there are 6 thousand movements, with almost 3 million passengers: numbers that make the port of Olbia the first in Italy.
From tomorrow, 15th July, 26 movements are expected: 13 ships arriving and 13 departing (some of them will go to the Cocciani dock in the industrial port of Cipnes.)
This continuous motion - in fact very intense in the summer period - produces the seabed burial. A limit to the safe circulation of the boats that has been planned to cull. In fact, a geomorphological survey campaign with Scan Sonar, carried out by the company Martech srl, is underway on the seabed. The results of the survey will be used for dredging operations that will take the gulf to an altitude of minus 10 metres and the access channel to Isola Bianca to an altitude of minus 11 metres.
It will not be the only study. Starting tomorrow July 15, the Institute for the Study of Anthropic Impacts and Sustainability in the Marine Environment has obtained the authorization from the Harbour Master's Office of Olbia to place a tool to measure the speed of the current along the vertical profile between the instrument and the sea surface.
Insula reopens in Forte Village
Show room and restaurant to promote the Sardinian identity chains
The producing Sardinia starts again. Insula, the territorial marketing platform created by Cipnes Gallura, reopened last June 27th, the operative unit inside Forte Village, the resort of Pula awarded as "Best hotel in the world" for the eighteenth consecutive time.
The Insula Sardinia Village aims to promote and market the products of its member companies operating in the identity chains of Sardinia: agrifood, artistic craftsmanship, fashion, design, biodiversity.
The Insula's mission is to tell a thousand-year-old story, that of Sardinia, rich in biodiversity, always uncontaminated and inhabited by a long-lived people. The island is in fact one of the five areas of the world identified as Blue Zone where life expectancy is much higher than the average.
The secret of Sardinian longevity, according to several studies, can be found in genetic factors but also in the healthy lifestyle, enriched by a balanced diet. Insula enhances this natural wealth.
The decision to confirm the unity of Forte Village - in addition to the show room, the restaurant will reopen in the next few days - is due to the fact that the resort has 160,000 visitors a year with an international share of 70%. This is the best way to market the best Sardinian products in the world and with a clientele with a high spending capacity.
Tourism in Gallura, in August similar numbers to 2019
Olbia airport forecast. 60% of the passengers arriving from Italy
From the middle of July tourist flows to Gallura will increase, particularly from Italy, and in August the trend will be consolidated, with good numbers in September and almost equal to those of 2019 in October. These are the forecasts of Geasar, the managing company of Olbia airport controlled by Prince Karim Aga Khan. The Coronavirus effects - travel and tourism are among the most affected sectors - will also be felt in the north-east of Sardinia, but there are encouraging signs: the damage to the economy and employment will be reduced compared to the pessimistic estimates made at the end of May.
"In June, 50% of our network was operative - explains Silvio Pippobello, CEO of Geasar, presenting the flight schedule for summer 2020 - but the occupancy coefficient was 70-75%". It means that passengers have decreased significantly (in June 2019 there were 425 thousand), but also that the aircraft - territorial continuity aside, flights from the rest of Italy resumed on June 5 - have flown quite full. "From mid-July we expect to have 70-80% of connections - Pippobello explains - and in August 100%".
The Coronavirus changes the everyday life, priorities and also the geography of tourists. Olbia airport, the most international airport in Sardinia with a 53% share of arrivals from abroad, will change its appearance: 60% of potential passengers will be domestic. "The majority of seats offered by airlines for the summer 2020 will be from Italy - explains Mario Garau, head of route development at Geasar -. 15% of seats will come from Germany, 7% from France, 5% from the United Kingdom".
340 thousand seats will be offered by Milan: 145 thousand by Malpensa and 194 thousand by Linate, which will reopen on 13 July. 144 thousand seats are available from Rome, 79 thousand from Verona and 77 thousand from Venice. The main company for Olbia airport will be easyJet with 360 thousand seats offered, followed by Alitalia with 347 thousand (it will ensure territorial continuity routes) and Volotea with 344 thousand (it will open the new routes of Ancona, Pescara, Pisa, Trieste and especially Bologna).
The seats offered, of course, do not automatically translate into passengers. But Geasar's forecasts, although made in a difficult and constantly evolving context (there are last-minute cancellations), leave room for reasonable optimism. In July the seats offered will be 367 thousand (48% less than a year ago), but already in August the losses will decrease: 569 thousand seats offered, 22% less than 2019. One month - the most important in some ways for the economy of Gallura - almost saved. September will be a little more negative (370 thousand seats, - 26%), while October could be the real surprise, although it is complicated to make predictions in such a long term: 240 thousand seats, 10% less than 2019.
On the front of the passengers to the port of Olbia, the first in Italy for number of passengers (almost 3 million in 2019), there are not official communications: the loss in June would have been around 50% in comparison to the past year.
Italy's next miracle passes by the "locomotive" Mezzogiorno
A work on the South of Italy by the Observatory of Banks and Businesses of Economy and Finance (OBI)
The Observatory of Banks and Businesses of Economy and Finance (OBI) of Bari together with the Alliance of Southern Institutes (AIM) of which it is an active member together with other Associations, has promoted and launched the idea of a policy document on Southern Italy, editing a first edition, at a time of great difficulty in the country following the coronavirus epidemic. On these issues, the Observatory had already experimented, in recent times, with the publication of a book published by Rubbettino at the end of 2019 entitled "Mezzogiorno in Progress? We are not Southerners", with the collaboration of 60 authors including entrepreneurs, academics, economists, social workers. The aim of the research, emblematically represented by the phrase "we are not Southerners", was to propose with a critical and pragmatic spirit, integrated development issues at national and European level.
This work was presented in Brussels on February 5, 2020 at the European Parliament and determined the birth of a "building site" named after the book " South in progress" open to all scientific, professional and experienced collaborations to contribute to development processes. The elaboration of a collective thought and action starting from cultural and geographically different individualities, which ethically recognize themselves in a common project, while respecting individuality, is the greatest contribution that the authors intend to give to the creation of a virtuous path of social, civil and economic cohesion of the South and the whole country.
All flights to Olbia in summer 2020
International routes: those with Munich, London Gatwick and Amsterdam are the most popular
The international isolation of Olbia airport - already partially interrupted by private jets - ends today with the first commercial flight arriving from Munich, historically the foreign route with the highest number of passengers (102 thousand in 2019). In fact, the ban on international air connections imposed by the Coronavirus has fallen at midnight, and Gallura, with its entire production system, is reopening to European markets, both incoming and outgoing.
Flights to Olbia in the summer of 2020 touch 15 European countries and 63 destinations, but they will have to be checked day by day, by consulting the airport site and the airlines' sites: the uncertainty linked to the virus is causing numerous cancellations, also on routes to Sardinia. Let's see in detail the flight network. Let's start from those of territorial continuity with the airports of Rome Fiumicino and Milan Malpesa (Linate is still closed); the service is guaranteed by Alitalia (in John Karraca's photo a plane in Olbia). Between Olbia and Rome there are currently four flights (round trip). They will become eight a day in July and August; they will drop to six in September; in October there will be four. Between Olbia and Malpensa there are currently six flights (round trip). They will become ten a day in July and August; in September they will be six again; in October they will be four.
Now let's see Olbia's international flights, starting today, and the other domestic routes. The country most connected with the Costa Smeralda airport is Germany, followed by France, Switzerland and Great Britain. This is the list of the routes.
From 25 June. Flight from Monaco by Eurowings.
From 26 June. Flight from Paris Orly of Transavia.
From 27 June. Flights from Düsseldorf (Eurowings), Hannover (Condor), Stuttgart (Eurowings), Genoa (Volotea) and Verona (Neos).
From 28 June. Flights from Hamburg (Eurowings), Luxembourg (Luxair) and Zurich (Edelweiss).
From 1 July. Flights from Berlin (Condor), Düsseldorf (Condor), Salzburg (Eurowings) and Trieste (Alitalia). Flights from Cologne (Eurowings), Copenhagen (Sas), Munich (Condor), Oslo (Sas), Prague (Smartwings) have been included in the timetable but are currently not operational.
Since 3 July. Flights from Amsterdam (Transavia), Ancona (Volotea), Bari (Volotea), Basel (easyJet), Berlin (easyJet), Bologna (Volotea), Nantes (Volotea), Naples (easyJet), Palermo (Volotea), Pisa (Volotea). Flights from Nice (easyJet) and Strasbourg (Volotea) have been included in the timetable but are currently non-operational.
Since 4 July. Flights from Bologna (Alitalia), Frankfurt (Lufthansa and Condor), Genoa (Alitalia), Geneva (easyJet and Swiss), Munich (Lufthansa and Air Dolomiti), Paris De Gaulle (Air France), Pisa (Volotea), Venice (easyJet), Verona (Alitaloia), Zurich (Helvetic).
From 8 July. Flights from Amsterdam (easyJet). The flight from London Luton (easyJet) has been included in the timetable but is not operational at the moment.
From 17 July. Flight from Barcelona (Vueling).
From 18 July. Flight from London Heathrow (British Airways).
From 21 July. Flight from Paris Orly (easyJet).
From 1 August. Flights from Lyon (easyJet), London Gatwick (easyJet), Manchester (easyJet), Moscow (S7 Airlines), Paris De Gaulle (easyJet), Vienna (Austrian).
From 3 August. Flights from Bordeaux (easyJet) and Nice (easyJet).
From 4 August. Flights from Bristol (easyJet), Toulouse (easyJet) and Zurich (Helvetic).
From 5 September. Flight from Stockholm (Norwegian).
A million and a half foreigners. Now let us analyze where the passengers come from and which months are most interested in the flows. In 2019 - as we read in the recent Enac report - the Olbia-Costa Smeralda airport recorded 2 million 960 thousand passengers, consolidating its position as Sardinia's second largest passenger airport. Like Cipnes Gallura we have analyzed all the data to provide companies with a complete picture of an infrastructure that is fundamental for the economic system of North-East Sardinia. There were 2 million 900 thousand passengers on scheduled and charter flights, including 1 million 390 thousand Italians (47% of the total) and 1 million 545 thousand international (53%). Going into even more detail, the passengers arriving in Olbia were 1 million 460 thousand of which 690 thousand Italian and 768 thousand international.
Data on flights by private jets were also interesting. The passengers of the airtaxis were over 17 thousand and those of the general aviation 7500. The movements (arrivals and departures) of the latter item were almost 34 thousand.
In August over 600 thousand passengers. As regards the number of passengers per month at Olbia airport, in first place is August (618 thousand), followed by July (594 thousand), June (425 thousand), September (403 thousand), May (249 thousand), October (201 thousand), April (163 thousand). The months with fewer passengers were those of January and February (50 thousand each).
Between Olbia and Malpensa 220 thousand passengers. Enac also reports the number of passengers on the main routes of Olbia airport. This is the ranking of the national ones: Olbia-Malpensa (221 thousand), Malpensa-Olbia (212 thousand), Olbia-Rome Fiumicino (155 thousand), Rome Fiumicino-Olbia (154 thousand), Milan Linate-Olbia (103 thousand), Olbia-Milan Linate (96 thousand), Verona-Olbia (54 thousand), Olbia-Verona (54 thousand).
Olbia-Munich, Olbia-London Gatwick and Olbia-Amsterdam are the most popular routes. This is the ranking of international routes (round trip): Olbia-Munich-Strauss (102 thousand), Olbia-London Gatwick (94 thousand), Olbia-Amsterdam Schiphol (92 thousand), Olbia-Paris Orly (77 thousand), Olbia-Düsseldorf (72 thousand), Olbia-Berlin Schoenefeld (66 thousand), Olbia-Frankfurt (61 thousand), Olbia-Barcelona El Prat.
Lack of software designers, welders and mechanics
Hard to find professions for businesses, the Excelsior directory
Italian companies (including, although to a lesser extent, Sardinian ones) have difficulty in finding numerous professional profiles, some of which are linked to the digital revolution (such as software designers) and others to the manufacturing world (welders and mechanical engineers). This is the map of unobtainable trades that draws the latest report by Excelsior Unioncamere and Aspal, entitled "Applications for professions and training of Italian companies in 2019".
According to the companies' replies, the share of professional figures that are difficult to find in the total number of recruitments was 26.4%, a percentage that drops to 20.9% for the South and the Islands. In first place among the figures for which there is the greatest demand are the intellectual, scientific and highly specialized Professions (38.2% at national level and 33.5% in the South), followed by the Technical Professions (37.6% and 35.2%) and the specialized Workers (37.2% and 26.5%).
In order to meet the needs of companies and - more specifically - of job seekers and students who are about to graduate, we report the list of professions that are difficult to find and in great demand according to Excelsior, which has analyzed those with at least 2000 entries into the production world scheduled for 2019:
Electrical welding specialists (71.9%) Programming engineers (64.3%) Software analysts and designers (64.2%) Language and other discipline teachers (62.6%) Flame welders and flame cutters (60.7%) Mechanical test engineers (60.3%) Mechanical technicians (57.6%) Mechanics and industrial thermal and hydraulic fitters (56, 3%) Industrial designers and similar professions (54.7%) Electrotechnical engineers (54.3%) Energy and mechanical engineers (53.9%) Application engineers (53.95) Machine tool and similar professions (53.5%) Real estate agents (53.35) Apparel packers, tailors, cutters and modellers (53%) Insurance agents (52.9%) White-collar agents Hand embroiderers and similar professions (51.5%) Specialists in public relations, image and similar (51.3%) General managers of companies in industry and public utilities (50.95) Trade representatives (50.3%) Weavers and knitters by hand and on manual frames (49.8%) Installers and repairers of electrical and electromechanical equipment (49, 1%) Electrotechnicians (49%) Manufacturing production technicians (48.8%) Automatic and semi-automatic machine tool workers (47.8%) Computer system designers and administrators (47.3%) Electronic technicians (47.2%) Upholsterers and materassai (47.2%) Procurement and purchasing managers (46.6%) Plumbers and plumbers of hydraulic and gas piping (46.5%).
Tourism, foreigners spend 1 billion in Sardinia
Bankitalia: Gallura considered the most international province, Germans at the first place
Foreign tourists registered 12 million 700 thousand presences in Sardinian hotels and spent 1 billion 120 million euros on the island.This is what the Bank of Italy reports in its latest report for 2019 and named "Survey on international tourism". The overnight stays are up 22.1% on those of 2018, which had been 10 million 400 thousand. Total expenditure is up 14.4%; in 2018 it amounted to 977 million euros.
It’s almost time for the reopening of international flights to Sardinia, scheduled for 25 June and Bankitalia's report therefore confirms the importance of foreign tourist flows for Sardinia's economy. As Cipnes Gallura, we represent part of a series of services based on tourism, we have come across several results and it has been confirmed that this is particularly true for the productive fabric of the Gallura region , the most international.
Other data - specifically those published a few days ago by Enac on 2019 - highlight the strong ability of the North East to attract foreign visitors. In Sardinia, the majority of passengers at the airports (9 million in total) are of national origin: in Alghero, 70.9% out of 1 million 385 thousand passengers, in Cagliari, always 70.9% out of 4 million 760 thousand passengers. The airport of Olbia-Costa Smeralda - which supplies all of Gallura and part of the Nuoro area - marks the opposite trend: 52.7% of its 2 million 934 thousand passengers arrive from abroad.
Enac's numbers also go into details of nationalities. For the Olbia airport, in first place are passengers from Germany (490 thousand), followed in second place by those from France (284 thousand) and third by those from the United Kingdom (211 thousand); then come those from the Netherlands (92 thousand), Spain (75 thousand) and Austria (58 thousand). The number of non-EU European passengers (for 2019 the United Kingdom was not included in this list) was 227 thousand.
The influence of foreign tourism on Gallura is also clear from the data of the Sardinia Region. In the absence of those of 2019, which have not yet been published, we can refer to those of previous years. In 2018 arrivals from abroad in hotels and non-hotel facilities in Gallura were 59% of the total and foreign arrivals 57% against - respectively - 50% and 51.6% of the Sardinian average. The same percentages were recorded in 2017. The ranking of presences reflects the order of arrivals at the airport: in first place in Gallura we find the Germans (958 thousand), in second place the French (678 thousand) and in third place the British (324 thousand).
The Bank of Italy has calculated that on average British tourists spend 106 euros a day on their holidays in Italy, Germans 89 euros and French 88 euros; the top spenders are the Japanese (232 euros a day), the Chinese (151 euros) and the Russians (146 euros); the latter mostly spend in Costa Smeralda.
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